Us Bases Agreement
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The campaign for the removal of U.S. bases and the return of the U.S. military to the Philippines encapsulated the nation`s complicated relationship with its former colonizer. As the most visible sign of America`s residual presence in the Philippine archipelago, the U.S. military presence remains the center of gravity of periodic explosions of resentment towards American influence. It erupted last week during protests that welcomed President Rodrigo Duterte`s decision to pardon a U.S. Navy man convicted in 2015 of killing a transgender woman at a hotel in the town of Olongapo, next to the former Subic Bay base. At other times, Duterte himself has sharply criticized the U.S. action in the Philippine Islands so far.
The Defence Enhanced Cooperation Agreement is a 10-page document containing a preamble and 12 articles, signed on 28 April 2014. It is a framework agreement that increases the scope of the 1951 TDM. On 16 September 1991, the Philippine Senate refused to extend the basic agreement by a narrow majority and, despite further efforts to save the situation, the two sides failed to reach an agreement. On December 6, 1991, the Philippine government informed the United States that it had one year to complete the withdrawal. This withdrawal went smoothly and ended prematurely, with the last U.S. forces withdrawn on November 24, 1992. Initially, the U.S. government sold more than $1.3 billion in assets to the Philippines, including an airport and a ship repair plant.
Agencies created by the Philippine government have rebuilt the former military bases for civilian commercial purposes, with Subic Bay serving as the flagship of these efforts. The Philippine government announced on July 16, 2015 that it would relaunch a U.S.-built deepwater naval base at Subic Bay The vote resulted in 11 senators supporting an extension of the contract and 12 senators in favor of cracking down on the agreement. The list of senators who voted for the basic contract – to keep the bases – were Mamintal Tamano, Neptali Gonzales Sr., Heherson Alvarez, Edgardo Angara, Ernesto Herrera, Jose Lina Jr., John Osmea, Vicente Paterno, Santanina Rasul, Alberto Romulo and Leticia Ramos Shahani. On June 1, the Philippine government informed the U.S. Embassy in Manila that it had frozen a February decision to withdraw the Philippine and U.S. Visiting Forces (VFA) agreement. The agreement between the two countries facilitates the possibility for the United States to send military forces to the Philippines and supports the mutual defense treaty signed in 1951 by the U.S. and Philippine governments. The 1951 Mutual Defence Treaty was confirmed by the Manila Declaration of November 2011.   The head of the U.S. Navy, Admiral Jonathan Greenert, suggested that LCS or surveillance aircraft could be deployed to the Philippines.  And the Philippines is considering the proposal.
 These “rotations” will help replace some of the U.S. presence in the area that was abandoned when the U.S. permanent bases in the Philippines were closed under President Bush.  According to the base, the United States maintained and operated large facilities on Clark Air Base until November 1991 and the Subic Bay Naval Complex, as well as several small subsidiaries in the Philippines until November 1992.